What is atherosclerosis. Part ǁ
Since atherosclerosis affects various arteries, it is symptoms depend on the localization of the lesion. The damage to the vessels that feed the heart develops ischemic heart disease; In atherosclerosis of renal vessels - renal failure and so on. Consider in more detail the symptoms of atherosclerosis of different arteries.
Atherosclerosis of blood vessels
With the damage to atherosclerosis of the aorta and the coronary arteries at the initial stages of the disease of the symptoms in the patient. Over time, there are manifestations resembling angina. For atherosclerosis, the heart is characterized by pain and sensation of squeezing in the chest area. Pain may spread to the left hand and the area under the left blade. Stenokard attack in most cases lasts long, but in this case, such pains can disturb the patient with hours.
A person can have increased the size of the left ventricle of the heart. This is because during atherosclerotic damage to heart vessels, blood flow is hampered in the heart. This leads to overflow of the left ventricle. In such conditions, the walls of the ventricle begin to stretch and thicken, because they have to perform additional work on blood pumping. Similar changes in the initial stages are well amenable to therapy, so it is extremely important to consult a doctor as soon as possible and begin treatment.
Atherosclerosis of abdominal arteries
Abdominal arteries feed on blood internal organs located in this area, mainly the gastrointestinal organs. Therefore, with an atherosclerotic lesion of the vessels of the abdominal region, the patient has complaints of digestion disruption.
One of the first symptoms in atherosclerosis of the abdominal arteries is pain in the abdomen, nausea, and vomiting. As a rule, it is a protracted pain that can disturb a person for several hours. As a rule, pain affects the area of the navel and the upper parts of the abdomen.
The deterioration of the blood supply to the digestive tract also leads to bloating, constipation or diarrhea. In the later stages of atherosclerosis of the patient's abdominal arteries, vomiting is often bothering with the remnants of undigested food. In severe cases of terminal stages of atherosclerosis, necrotic changes in the bowel tissue occur.
Atherosclerosis of the vascular of the lower extremities
As well as atherosclerosis of the heart arteries, atherosclerosis of the vascular of the lower extremities is a fairly common phenomenon. This disease may not appear for years, and in the progression of pathology, a person appears in the legs. In the first stages, the pain occurs when passing long distances. However, the more the vessels of the legs are cleaned, the smaller the distance can pass the patient without a breather.
Another indirect sign of an atherosclerotic change of the vascular of the lower extremities is the partial loss of hair cover on the legs. This is due to the deterioration of blood supply. Also arise and problems with nails and skin.
The danger of atherosclerosis of the lower extremities is primarily in trophic limbs. If the disease is not treated, then over time the risk of trophic ulcers and necrotic changes increases. In advanced cases, during atherosclerosis of the lower extremities, gangrene develops at which amputation is shown.
Atherosclerosis of brain vessels
In atherosclerotic lesions of the vessels that feed the brain, in the patient at the first stage, there are symptoms of oxygen starvation of the brain. First of all, headaches and dizziness are concerned. Also, the concentration of attention and memory deteriorates. A man becomes more scattered and sluggish.
In progression, the disease often begins to bother nausea, sometimes vomiting. Due to the lack of oxygen in the brain, it is possible to feel the sense of the limbs. With a further blockage of the vessel, the risk of ischemic stroke increases, in which the part of the brain fabric dies.
Who is the Specialist for atherosclerosis
If atherosclerosis is suspected, you can contact one of the specialists:
If the family history has been cardiovascular diseases, periodically it is necessary to check the level of cholesterol and the state of the vessels.
The doctor will want to know whether people with high levels of cholesterol, high pressure or other diseases of the heart have been in a family history. It is also important to provide a doctor with a lifestyle, food habits, tobacco use. Also, the doctor will need information about whether a person passed the cholesterol test before.
Depending on the accuracy of vessels affected by atherosclerosis, the patient may develop the following complications:
• Ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction;
• ischemic stroke;
• failures in the work of the gastrointestinal tract;
• board formation;
• aortic aneurysm;
• violation in the work of the kidneys;
• trophy ulcers and gangrene limbs;
• other complications.
How Is Atherosclerosis Diagnosed
Atherosclerosis diagnosis includes several of procedures:
• Inspection of the patient and collection of anamnesis. At the first stage, the doctor studies a person's complaints, inspects the skin (in atherosclerosis, it is usually pale), and also listens to the heart and measures blood pressure.
• Blood tests (general and biochemical). In atherosclerosis, sugar, protein, cholesterol, and some other indicators can be elevated in the patient. On the analysis of blood, it can also be assumed which artery is amazed atherosclerosis.
• Urine tests. The changes in the composition of urine are especially noticeable in atherosclerosis of renal vessels.
• Instrumental diagnostics. Depending on the localization of the atherosclerotic lesion, the patient can carry out an electrocardiogram, echocardiography (heart ultrasound), phonocardiogram, angiography of the lower limb vessels, magnetic resonance imaging, and other types of research.
After research, the attending physician establishes the exact diagnosis and is a treatment regimen.
How Is Atherosclerosis Treated
Atherosclerosis is a disease, the treatment of which is not limited to one with medical intervention. Important in the treatment of the disease occupies a modification of lifestyle. Patients should adhere to the principles of proper nutrition and abandon bad habits. An integral part of life should be regular physical exertion. Their level picks up the doctor based on the age of the patient and the overall state of health. As a rule, these are walks with a gradual increase in time and walking intensity.
To slow down the pathological process, the patient during atherosclerosis is prescribed the following types of medications:
• Statins are preparations that reduce blood cholesterol.
• Sequestrants of bile acids are preparations that depress the production of bile acids. With a shortage of bile acids, cholesterol is much faster.
• Fibrats – medications, that is reduce fats.
• Vasodinating medications. Such belongs, for example, nicotine acid derivatives. With the extension of blood vessels, blood is easier to progress at the affected atherosclerosis vessels.
In most cases, changes in lifestyle and medication therapy are sufficient to improve the condition of the patient and stop the pathological process. However, in advanced cases, with too severe changes in the vessels and organs that they supply blood, surgical intervention is shown to the patient. The main types of operations during Atherosclerosis:
• Shunting is the creation of additional vessels (shunts) to ensure normal blood current.
• Angioplasty - a minimally invasive operation at which a catheter with a balloon at the end is introduced into the artery. When the affected area is achieved, the cylinder opens, which allows you to expand the type of artery. Then the stent is installed on this place - the metal mesh tube, which allows you to easily move the blood along the blood vessel.
The treatment of accompanying diseases is also extremely important in the treatment of atherosclerosis, since diabetes, arterial hypertension, kidney disease and others.
Diet with atherosclerosis
The atherosclerosis diet must satisfy the following principles:
• Limiting saturated fats. It is recommended to reduce the number of animal fats consumed. It is better to abandon fried meat because the isomerization of fats occurs during frying. Because of this, the share of transgenes increases in fried meat, and it is advisable to completely refuse them.
• More vegetables and fruits. Eat more vegetable food, because it contains a fiber that normalizes the level of sugar and lipids in the blood, as well as improves digestion.
• Salt restriction and sugar. Excessive consumption of simple carbohydrates (sugar, sweets, sweet drinks, including natural juice) promotes obesity and metabolic disorders. And too much salt in the diet increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases in general.
It is imperative to comply with the rules of food behavior. Never overeat, eat slowly, and carefully chew food. Regarding the number of food meals - consult your doctor. For some patients, there are enough 2-3 meals per day, and some need fractional food - up to 4-6 times with small portions.
Predictions at atherosclerosis
Currently, it is impossible to completely get rid of atherosclerosis. So far, such medications would have allowed us to completely get rid of plaques, and most importantly - to restore the walls of the vessels. Therefore, predictions in atherosclerosis depend on that at what stage of the disease the patient appealed to the doctor. If these are early stages, then the forecast is favorable while complying with all the recommendations of the doctor, especially related to lifestyle changes.
How to Prevent Atherosclerosis
Preventive measures for atherosclerosis are reduced to the following recommendations:
• Compliance with the principles of healthy and balanced nutrition. Refusal to excessive sugar, salt, and oily food.
• Physical activity at least 150 minutes per week.
• Weight normalization.
• Refusal of bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse).
• Mental health monitoring and avoiding stress.
Atherosclerosis is much easier to prevent than to treat. If from an early age to lead a healthy lifestyle, then the probability of atherosclerosis and related problems is significantly reduced. So you can protect your body from many of diseases since all organs and systems are largely dependent on the state of the vessels.