How to Tame Anxiety. 5 Factors That Cause Anxiety. Predictions & Treatment
Anxiety is a person's emotional reflection of a serious deterioration in the value characteristics of reality or future things. The opposite form of emotion is anticipation, that is, anticipation is an emotional reflection of a person's apparent positive tendency toward the value characteristics of reality or future things.
Anxiety refers to the unpleasant complex emotional state of tension, the anxiety one feels about the impending danger or threat that may be caused.
The objective purpose of anxiety is to teach people how to quickly take various measures and urgently mobilize various value resources in order to effectively prevent serious deterioration of the value characteristics of real or future things and to make them develop in a favorable direction.
Emotions and Illness
Anxiety itself is a normal emotional reflection of people, but excessive or mild anxiety forms emotional or physiological illnesses. For example, being insensitive to the country during a crisis without worrying about the country and people is a typical emotional or physiological illness; similarly, excessive anxiety is caused by small changes in personal interests or occurring for no reason Excessive anxiety is also an emotional or physiological illness.
(1) Realistic anxiety.
Unlike pathological anxiety, reality anxiety is an emotional response to potential challenges or threats to reality, and this emotional response is adapted to the reality of real threats and is something that the person cannot control when faced with reality. A general reaction to an event or situation. Characteristically, the intensity of anxiety corresponds to the degree of the real threat and disappears with the disappearance of the real threat, so it has adaptive value. It helps people mobilize the body's capacity and resources to deal with real threats and gradually achieve a sense of control and effective problem-solving measures necessary to deal with problems until such real threats are controlled or eliminated. Consequently, realistic anxiety is a person's primary emotional response to adaptation and problem-solving. It is a method of emotional and behavioral response that humans form during evolution in order to adapt to and cope with their environment.
(2) Pathological Anxiety.
Pathological anxiety refers to a constant feeling of nervousness and restlessness with no specific reason, or to a feeling of disaster, threat, or imminent disaster with no real basis, which is accompanied by an obvious autonomic dysfunction and motor anxiety, and is often accompanied by subjective pain or social anxiety.
The aforementioned concepts include the following basic characteristics:
① Anxiety intensity has no real basis or is clearly not commensurate with the threat of reality;
② Anxiety leads to a reduction in mental pain and self-efficacy, so it is a kind of maladaptive anxiety;
③ Anxiety is relatively long-term, it does not disappear with the resolution of objective problems and is often related to personality characteristics;
④ Tension is an emotional state characterized by autonomic nervous system symptoms, including chest discomfort, palpitations, shortness of breath, etc.;
⑤ Anticipation of disaster or misfortune.
Pathological anxiety. Clinical manifestations
Symptoms of panic disorder are spontaneous, recurrent and unpredictable attacks of acute anxiety accompanied by a distinct sense of near death. Typical clinical symptoms of a panic attack are:
Mental symptoms of a panic attack
The first episode is often sudden and spontaneous. The mental experience of a typical panic attack has three manifestations:
(1) Feeling of near death: often a characteristic symptom of a panic attack. The patient suddenly has tightness in the chest, pressure in the chest, suffocation, fear and tension due to the inability to breathe on his own and even screams at the approach of death, often involuntarily rushing to the window, opening the door and window and letting air into the chest cavity.
(2) Feelings of loss of control: some manifest as extreme mental tension, anxiety about losing control, or fear of going insane.
(3) Feeling of mental distress: some patients begin to have uncontrollable mental distress.
Regardless of the experience, patients who have had such an attack experience extreme fear and anxiety about having another attack.
Physical symptoms of a panic attack
Physical symptoms of a panic attack are mostly symptoms of sympathetic hyperexcitability, and general clinical symptoms include:
- Circulatory system: palpitations, palpitations, palpitations, sweating;
- Respiratory system: chest pressure, shortness of breath, chest pain and discomfort, throat congestion;
- Digestive system: nausea and vomiting, bloating, diarrhea, abdominal pain;
- Nervous system: floating in the body, dizziness, fever or chills, numbness, tingling in the skin, tremors;
- Other: feeling of depersonalization or disintegration of reality, etc.
The illness often comes on suddenly, with symptoms quickly peaking within 10-30 minutes, duration is short, and cessation is sudden. Onset rarely exceeds an hour.
Generalized anxiety disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by chronic, diffuse, unrealistic, and excessive anxiety about certain life situations. It often manifests as persistent mental distress accompanied by dizziness, tightness in the chest, palpitations, shortness of breath, dry mouth, frequent urination, urges, sweating, tremors, and anxiety with physical exertion. But this is not caused by real threats or dangers, and the degree of tension is incommensurate with real events.
The clinical manifestations mainly include three groups of symptoms: mental restlessness, physical restlessness, and restlessness on physical exertion.
1. Mental Anxiety
This manifests itself in excessive and constant anxiety and worry about everyday little things. Anxiety pain is mentally experienced as excessive anxiety, fear or worry about natural disasters, accidents or uncontrollable events pointing to the future or uncertain events, such as anxiety about illnesses of family members, childhood accidents and mistakes at work, small economic problems, interpersonal relationships, etc., also known as anxiety of expectation, the content may vary. Mental anxiety may be accompanied by changes in sleep, insomnia, daydreaming, difficulty concentrating, decreased performance, irritability, irritability, etc.
2. Physical Anxiety
Physical or autonomic anxiety is mainly manifested as a disorder of autonomic nervous function. Patients may have sweaty palms, nausea, palpitations, rapid heartbeat, dry mouth, throat discomfort, foreign body sensation, diarrhea, hyperhidrosis, etc.; urogenital symptoms include frequent urination, urge to erect, inability to get an erection, and low libido; neurological symptoms include tinnitus, blurred vision, general discomfort, tingling, dizziness, and a feeling of fainting.
3. Nerve, muscle, and kinesthetic symptoms
Symptoms include irritability, muscle tremor, body tremor, agitation, increased aimless activity, irritability, anger, and impaired behavioral control. The appearance of anxious patients may be manifested by expressions of tension, pain, frowning eyebrows, stiffness, and unnatural posture, which may be accompanied by tremors. Skin is pale, sweaty. Increased fine movements, inability to sit still, wandering back and forth. Individual patients have stuttering, or the initial stuttering is exacerbated. Symptoms of muscle tension include clenching pain in the head, mostly pain in the forehead and occiput, shoulder and back, stiffness and difficulty moving. Sleep disturbances are usually caused mainly by difficulty falling asleep. After going to bed, anxiety is caused by tossing and turning, inability to fall asleep, nightmares, sweating, and fear may occur. The day after rising, the person experiences dizziness.
Commonly used methods are medication and psychotherapy. For anxiety patients with panic disorder, the main goal is to quickly improve and reduce the patient's mental tension and various physical discomforts.
- Benzodiazepines are the most commonly used anti-anxiety medications. Clonazepam 1-2 mg or alprazolam 0.4 ～ 0.8 mg 1-2 times daily, intramuscularly or orally, is usually used because the drug is addictive. Decreasing or increasing the dose should be strictly under the supervision of a physician.
- Tricyclic antidepressants such as imipramine, clomipramine may be effective for generalized anxiety and panic attacks. The doctor may prescribe amitriptyline for sleep disorders.
- 5-TH reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, each dose is 20-40 mg once daily. Fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, etc. can also be used.
These and other medications can buy at Anxiety Section.
Interpretive psychotherapy, relaxation therapy, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, and hypnotherapy may be used. Most people with anxiety are accompanied by insomnia because insomnia exacerbates anxiety, which also makes psychotherapy difficult.
The onset of generalized anxiety is slow, and the course of the disease is long. With long-term follow-up, 41% to 50% of cases recovered and improved. In about 30% to 40% of patients with panic disorder, symptoms disappear, about 50% of patients have mild symptoms, 10-20% have obvious symptoms, and the prognosis is poor.
A survey of 2,000 adults found that 62% of people felt that life was becoming increasingly anxious. 54% of respondents said they have become more anxious about money in the past 5 years; worries about aging (40%), appearance (32%) and career advancement (30%) are also major sources of anxiety.
Mental health issues are receiving increasing attention from the government and society. However, most people still do not consider mental and psychological problems to be serious. In fact, anxiety is overwhelming and the psychological pressure is too great to damage our bodies and minds. How can we reduce anxiety, reduce stress and make our lives a little happier? Today we're going to talk to you about this topic.
The five causes of people's anxiety are
1. Inseparable from smartphones. In this digital age, major world events have flooded onto our cell phones. Although we communicate more than ever, we are more alone than ever. People need to communicate through their senses-whether it's touch, eye contact, smell, and other communications such as laughter or even tears. All of this is ignored in digital communication.
2. Living a "double life". Clinical psychologists have found that many people live double lives: on the one hand, they want to show an image of being "happy with others"; on the other hand, they shut their doors by drinking, overeating or cheating anxiety.
3. Health Concerns. People's worries about health are becoming more and more common. This aspect reflects that we have a better understanding of health, but it can also cause us to be "hypochondriacs." This group of people is often seen in the hospital, and they suspect that they have a serious problem before the results of the examination are even known. For example, if you have changed bowel habits, bloated stomach after eating or lost weight, you think you have bowel cancer.
4. "Wanting to look more perfect" is stressful. One-third of people stated that their appearance causes them anxiety. We live in a world of celebrity and reality TV culture. This culture makes "regular people" want to be idols in the eyes of the public, and people are paying more and more attention to appearance. Many people hate their looks because of "not enough comparison," which becomes a source of anxiety. Social media also contributes to this anxiety and focus.
5. Young people are experiencing more and more stress. Research has shown that patients' main symptoms of anxiety begin at age 22 and peak around age 32. This is consistent with the Eight Stages of Psychological Development theory of the famous American psychologist Erik Erikson: people between the ages of twenty and thirty face dual pressures, namely intimacy and loneliness. People need to find the right partner, but they are concerned that they will not be able to establish a relationship well, which in turn will lead to loneliness and death.
Three types of people need more attention and prevention of psychological problems
Adolescent. Adolescence is a transitional period from immaturity to maturity, from family to society. Due to the rapid development of the body, self-awareness and personality, young people face various crises and are exposed to various psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Psychological problems at this stage are unresolved, and this can affect further development. The prevalence of mental disorders among elementary and secondary school students is 21.6-30%, which is noticeable in the form of problems in interpersonal relationships, emotional stability and adaptation to learning. Rates of delinquency, alcohol addiction, drug addiction, and antisocial personality disorder in early adulthood are 5-10 times higher than in normal adults.
Women. Because of their delicate minds, women think more than men and have more worries, especially women who are emotional, overly compliant, anxious, and overly dependent. Compared to men, they are more prone to depression, neurasthenia, hysteria, menopausal syndrome, and anxiety.
Older people. In old age, a person's organs begin to age, functions deteriorate, and various physical illnesses appear one after another, making older people prone to various mental and psychological disorders. The most common is senile depression. Others include senile delirium and dementia, post-traumatic stress disorder in old age, sleep disorders, etc. The prevalence of major depression ranges from 1% to 5% among older adults over 65 living in the community, and the prevalence among older adults aged 70 to 85 years and older has doubled. Depressive symptoms in older adults often follow chronic physical illness, cognitive impairment and dysfunction, and there is a high risk of suicide, which is very distressing for patients and their families.
People who don't like change have a high sense of happiness
A new study by American scientists reminds people who like to imagine the future and seek new changes. People who expect to maintain the status quo and don't like change in the next 10 years will experience a stronger sense of happiness in life.
Dr. Joseph Leif of the University of California, Los Angeles, and his research team conducted a 10-year survey of 4,963 participants. The researchers began the study by asking participants to predict changes in their status, well-being, health, etc. over the next 10 years, and then assessed participants' life satisfaction after 10 years. The analysis showed that participants who estimated that they had not changed much had the highest happiness index in 10 years; those who expected to be better or worse in 10 years were less satisfied with their lives. The study's findings are published in the American Journal of Social Psychology and Personality Science.
Exercise is a mood "stimulant."
Research in neurobiology shows that exercise can stimulate the secretion of a brain chemical, endorphins, which can make people relaxed and happy. Endorphins, also known as andorphins, are morphine-like hormones secreted by the brain. The reason it is called "endorphin" refers to morphine-like substances produced in the body. It can have the same analgesic and euphoric effects as morphine and opiates, and is equivalent to a natural analgesic. From a functional standpoint, endorphins can not only relieve pain but also regulate bad emotions, make people happy and counteract grief; they can also improve insomnia; mobilize the neuroendocrine system, boost immunity; invigorate the spirit, stimulate creativity and increase efficiency. Many people don't want to move when they're in a bad mood, but lying down thinking about it makes you feel worse. It is recommended that you move more when you are in a bad mood.
How much exercise is appropriate? Can a walk after a meal be effective? Actually, not all exercise can have this effect. Only moderate to high-intensity exercise can stimulate endorphin secretion, such as mountain climbing, basketball, badminton, running for more than 30 minutes. From this point of view, a walk after a meal may be more conducive to digestion. If you want to improve your mood, you also need to schedule higher-intensity exercise. However, the more exercise the better. Studies have shown that over-intensive and high-intensity exercise can lead to even more anxiety and higher nervous tension. It is recommended that the frequency of exercise be appropriate every other day, and each exercise should not exceed 90 minutes. People who previously lacked exercise or are not suited to high-intensity exercise can choose to walk quickly, from 15 minutes a day to 20 minutes or half an hour after a week, step by step, and allow the body to slowly adapt to the level of intensity.
Even if there are no emotional or psychological problems, you must develop the habit of exercising. In our daily work and life, we will experience all sorts of stresses, the effects of which on our psychological state are latent and difficult to detect. Regular exercise can help us get rid of the negative emotions we accumulate every day and channel them in time.
A few tricks for dealing with psychological pressure
Once you discover a psychological problem, you can't "do nothing," just tolerate it, and you need to actively deal with it. Generally speaking, if you are experiencing psychological discomfort, you can first adjust yourself in the following ways.
- Handle the pressure the right way. When you face setbacks, distract yourself, put aside your worries for a while, and do what you enjoy most. When the mood is calm, think about how to solve the troubles.
- Adapt to society in a unique way. Everyone has their own way of life, you have your brilliance and I have my pride. The fulcrum is different, the shining point is also different. Don't be afraid to adapt to society in your own way, go your own way and do your own thing.
- Learn to get out of yourself. When you are unhappy or sad, you can express your unpleasant emotions through exercise, entertainment and talking to friends. Don't suppress negative emotions.
- Communicate with people in a positive way. Change your attitude toward others, treat others kindly, don't fight with others everywhere, let alone second-guess others, learn to compromise when necessary, and don't expect too much from others.
- As soon as you feel you are under too much psychological pressure and self-regulation is ineffective, you should actively seek professional help.
- When we face anxiety and stress, there are actually many solutions, such as deep breathing, meditation, talking to others and living happily ever after.